This sort of things comes up every year. When you replace a battery and put your own electrolyte in, you should always let it sit for about an hour before putting the battery into use or putting it on a charger. That being said, I have often just plugged it into the bike or car and carried on as normal. I seriously doubt that you have done any damage whatsoever to the battery.
On the other hand, the Battery Tender type chargers really aren't meant to charge a dead battery. They are designed and meant to maintain a battery at or near peak power. They "charge" at such a low amperage (usually around 5ma or 1/2 amp, they are only meant to keep the battery at it's given peak ratings. I have seen a lot of Battery Tenders die early because of being used to try and charge a dead battery. They just work their little butts off and eventually croak.
I have used a 4 amp charger to bring dead batteries up to charge for years. Mine also kicks down to a low .5 amp when the battery is up to full charge, and will kick on and off as required. If I have to get a battery charged up quickly I bring out the 12 amp charge and only use it on the battery for a maximum of 1 hour at a time.
You have to remember that when you are charging a battery, the faster you push amps into it, the more heat is created. Heat is a big killer for batteries.