The topic of camping off the bike was discussed along with what gear goes well. I haven't refined my packing yet but two pictures kinda showing how it came together. in tail bag going up was camping gear bag, and some loose incidentals. in full bag on right was laptop computer (for work) with case and sleeping bag and a few personal clothing items. left 2/3 bag (because of exhaust), bike extras, camera, toiletry bag and some incidentals. on top of the tail bag was tent and pad. I am still refining this somewhat to scale back the gearbag some.
Thus with this example and expanding it for two up.. You would need to add the second sleeping bag, pad and clothing. If you could make your gear bag smaller, then 1 sleeping bag and gear bag could go in the tail bag, along with perhaps the second sleeping bag (or a ditty bag), That leaves one pannier for clothing, one for the other camping gear/camera, shower shoes and leave a little room for those few things you will pick up to take home.
If you are considering putting putting the sleeping bags on top of the panniers, consider getting some bungee buddies as tie down points.
HOpe that helps you get your thoughts focused on this.
as for the places, Stone Mtn State Park is a great place. Also don't overlook Hanging Rock State Park.
And the bike campgrounds, two in Wilkes County south of Wilkesboro,
There is also some nice campgrounds around Kerr Scott lake in Wilkesboro. If you made that a destination you could arrange with an outfitter there to have paddling stuff for a day of paddling. The upper part around Keowee Campground makes it easy to paddle up the river out of the lake. There is one Bed and Breakfast there that also provides that. The down side to that is the less than ADV style ride to the places (40/421)
The one at Meadows of Dan is Willville Motorcycle Camping http://www.willvillebikecamp.com/
Like I mentioned, the route up to Danville via 86 out of Hillsborough is a easy 2 lanes, Then 58 is a lightly traveled relaxed 4 lane around Martinsville until you get to the Stuart VA. From Hillsborough to the BRParkway I think is 112 miles. Wilville is just past the parkway.
Hanging Rock, about 70 miles most directly, can be somewhat creatively reached for a few extra miles rather than I 40 to nc66.
Stone Mountain, about 120 miles via 40/421/77/21 could also be reached by arching over Greensboro and Winston and picking up 268 at Hanging Rock.
It all kinda depends upon how much time you want to ride just to get to the place.
Then another place to consider for its closeness would be Ferry Stone State Park, VA, 20 miles west of Martinsville. (90+ miles from Hillsborough) They have cabins also and then it becomes a day ride up to Meadows of Dan, Check out two wineries on the Parkway, dash into Floyd and then back to camp. via Woolwine. This could be the same venue from Hanging Rock as it is only about 25 miles from HR State Park to Meadows of Dan.
Hope this helps get some ideas and discussion about what this trip needs to be for each of you.