Um, Wow. First off, your basic assertion is a lie. There is no one with half a brain in their head who would assume or state that EVs have no pollution. Where the hell are you getting that? Who is so stupid or ignorant to make such an idiotic assertion? Your assumption (which has made an ass of you (American joke)) is utterly baseless. The phrase "Zero Emissions" was not dreamt up by any car company, it came from the California Air Resources Board (CARB). California, particularly southern California, and very specifically Los Angeles (where I'm from originally) is more car- and motorcycle-crazy than just about any other place on the planet. And L.A. has an unfortunate geological structure and location that caused the Native Americans to call it the "Valley of the Smokes" long before civilization arrived. So pack it full of smog-belching cars and throw in a thermal inversion (Google it) and it becomes hell for human habitation. Ask me how I know. (Glad you asked - I spent several years as a messenger, driving 40k miles a year in L.A. traffic.) CARB came along in the '60s and started mandating more severe restrictions on pollution from vehicles than other states did. California is such a huge portion of the global automotive market that CARB had the leverage to force compliance with their standards. Later they upped the ante with the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) mandate, that required a certain proportion of any manufacturer's vehicles sold in the state to be Zero Emission. (Hence the name "compliance car" - a vehicle the manufacturer doesn't want to make, which only exists to allow them to sell gas cars in the state, and which will disappear in a heartbeat if the regulations ever change - which the OEMs are constantly trying to do.) The ZEV mandate was a huge influence in putting modern EVs on the road. CARB is all about air quality. For vehicles all they care about is tailpipe emissions. (Power plants are a different division.) CARB and the ZEV mandate have been in the news in California (and the several other US states that have adopted their standards) and among clean vehicle proponents everywhere for decades. So people know what ZEV means. As tech evolved the ZEV mandate evolved, grew, and branched out. Now there are different categories with different requirements (BEV, hybrid, etc.), something called ZEV Credits, I've even seen an ICE (not hybrid) with some sort of ZEV badge on it. (Don't even want to know the logic behind that.) The bottom line here was to qualify to get the ZEV badge, which is what the eco-conscious buyers were looking for. (Now EVs have enough of an identity of their own that many don't wear the ZEV badge. But the terminology remains.) Marketing rule #1: Don't confuse your customer. If clean vehicles already have a name the customers know and understand, don't try to change it - roll with it. THAT'S what that badge on the Nissan means. It can't mean anything else. There's too much history to unlearn. Even if you're coming to clean vehicles as a complete noob, you learn pretty much on day one that "Zero Emissions" refers to tailpipe emissions. That is, unless you're an EV hater, and your goal is to exploit every case of semantic imprecision to the detriment of EVs. When liberpolly called you on that statement you gave a snarky response and a table from a Wikipedia entry. If you look up the source of that table you find it's from a study dated 2008. The only EV available in 2008 was the just-released Tesla Roadster. All the numbers in that table were estimates - about an industry that essentially didn't exist yet. How far has that industry advanced and changed in 11 years? Think those estimates might do well with some revisions? Try again. Maybe you could cite a source that has some basis in reality. Eight years is by far the norm for pack warranties. Mine has a 10 year warranty. No matter, because warranties are not the point you're trying to make them be. You seem to think there's a countdown clock in every pack that goes "Pack death in 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Pack is now dead." No. Capacity degrades slowly. When it reaches the completely arbitrary 80% (typical) it still has plenty of range for many applications. The warranty period has far more to do with the manufacturer's understanding of their own tech and comfort with warranty risk than when pack capacity becomes an issue for users. There are going to be a very large number of packs that go WAY beyond the warranty period with no perceivable degradation of capacity, with very happy owners. When capacity does degrade too much, even out of warranty, it can easily be nothing more than a single marginal cell or even a corroded connection. Depending on the manufacturer, it can be an easy repair. There are already several companies that do this, and there's a thriving market for Leaf and Volt cells (new or used), the most popular brands. (You could even do cell replacements in a Tesla, which are cemented in place, though I suspect Tesla would detect that and brick the car. Such is life with a high-end EV.) If you're going to discuss the lifecycle of power-producing equipment, where did you include the piles of scrap petroleum, coal and gas extraction and processing equipment? Care to guess how that pile would compare to your photo of turbine blades? Before you respond, get a sense of the stupefying variety of equipment involved. Seriously? You're worried about connectors? CONNECTORS?? As for the "too many standard layouts," just remove the the whole pack from the car, including bottom shield, and bolt it to a wall. Done. BTW, this is not recycling. It's re-purposing. Obviously false, and already covered. 80% of original capacity, or even 50%, is still a lot. Most cells in a pack will likely be stronger than that. You're doing an inspection, status check and at least a light refresh anyway before putting the pack into different service, so stuff like that gets spotted as part of the process. It's very likely there will be automated equipment to measure cell capacity, so the user can put a used/refreshed pack into service knowing exactly what its health and capacity is. When a lead acid cell is dead, it's dead. No capacity, won't charge. And almost always, the dead cell is not accessible within a battery made up of several cells. Lithium has a much longer life than lead acid to begin with, so less maintenance for powerwalls. Also keep in mind that EVs haven't been around long enough to generate enough tired packs to feed the re-purposed powerwall industry. So all of this is necessarily speculation on an industry that does not exist because there is no supply yet. There is zero reason to speculate on how impractical it might be, when none of this needs to be hard. It's all actually pretty straightforward. When the powerwall market gets some legs, the cost of repairing or replacing an EV pack will be mitigated significantly. There will be demand for used packs, and there will be many companies out there willing to work on your pack. Today even dealers won't touch your pack. That will change - pack repair will be as common as buying a rebuilt alternator or fixing a transmission today. There will be failed lithium cells, and I agree that they should be recycled. But there isn't enough of a market for that either yet. Hopefully that market rises with powerwalls. To be honest, for someone who is supposedly interested in EMs, it seems you work very hard at pointing out concerns, valid or not, about the viability of EVs in general. Not sure why, but understand that a contrarian necessarily gives up some credibility when their position is predictable going in. Try surprising us. There's a good side to EVs too.