It's tricky.... so they tell me. It got to where the vet was charging so much, DIY to the rescue, still had to source the semen for the breed and characteristics desired. (oh gosh, that sounds so racist now!) His "take rate" (my term) wasn't what he'd hoped for so he switched to renting bulls. Then he bought a specific bull, then another. He and my mom would bring certain heifers in with the bull they wanted to control herd genetics and kept detailed records. They would get a premium for their calves when they sold them off to be fed out.