To me, Honda is the most intriguing on your list of major manufacturers. IMHO, no one has better engineers than Honda. When the GM EV1 was getting a lot of attention in the 90's, Honda was making the EV+, which I would argue was an even more impressive achievement. But it was a grocery-getter, not a 'sports' car, so it got no love. (And BTW, Honda did all the same nasty things that got GM called out in the world-famous documentary Who Killed the Electric Car, but they still didn't get any bad press for it. At all. Because the EV+ wasn't a media darling.) I think the only other pure EV Honda has made since then is the eFit, which they were forced to do in order to sell cars in CA due to the CARB mandate. (CA is a huge market, and the land of the compliance car.) I know of no others globally. (Please correct me if I'm wrong.) The reason is that Honda views itself as an engine company. As in internal combustion. The world's best. (The founder, Soichiro Honda, was once quoted as saying he had motor oil flowing through his veins.) They are certainly the biggest. Over years of following them I've seen a number of references that strongly suggest the very fine products and vehicles they make, from generators to aircraft, are really just a means of selling engines. They are certainly capable of building a world-beating EV of any type. I just don't think they want to. More importantly, I think they would prefer to purposely slow the trend toward electric power as much as possible. To all the other major manufacturers, the march toward electric vehicles is just a market shift. Certainly a major one, but really just something they see as necessary to remain in the game as markets change with technology. Nothing more. For Honda it's a repudiation of the core of their corporate identity. It will be very interesting to see how they respond, and how it plays out within the company. They need to adapt to the market and fundamentally change their culture. Not an easy task.